Redmarshall

Place-name

Redmereshill 1195-1221. Redemershehill 1314. Redmarshall 1436. Old English place-name “red mere”. Old English read + mere, genitive singular read-meares + hill. At some stage mere was replaced with Middle English mershe, a marsh. “The hill of the red mere”.

See “A Dictionary of County Durham Place-names” V.Watts (2002)

Early Landowners

Sir Henry de Lisle was lord of the manor of Redmarshall in the 13th century. The manor passed, through his neice, to the Langton family of Wynyard. When Thomas Langton died without children in 1417, Redmarshall was again inherited by a niece, Sybil, who married Sir Roger Conyers. After two generations Redmarshall came, through marriage, to Ralph Claxton, who died in1524. The Claxtons remained lords of the manor throughout the 16th century.

See “The Victoria History of the County of Durham” vol.3 (ed.) W.Page (1928).

An Early Mention

In an inventory of church goods in Durham diocese compiled in 1553 it says:

“Ridmershall: One challice with a paten, weying xiiij unces, thre great belles in the stepell, iij hand belles, and one lyttell sacring bell.”

An early mention in literature can be found in “The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham” vol.3, R.Surtees (1823):

 ‘The church. It’s tower and tufted trees are seen from a considerable distance rising over a level district of loam and red clay, where the floods of winter would formerly collect and rest on the tenacious soil in a broad discoloured pool or mere . . . The church, amidst much of modern repair, has scattered features of high antiquity. . . . The old parsonage house, closely adjoining the church-yard is of brick. A stone front has been added on the South. Lord Crewe’s arms are over the door.’

Selected Buildings

St. Cuthbert  (Norman nave and tower, 15th century chancel.)

Rectory (1845)

Ship Inn (late 17th or early 18th century.)

A Few Lost buildings

The Parsonage House (partly 15th century) demolished in 1845.

Redmarshall Station (1836) closed in 1952 and subsequently demolished.

Some People of Note

William de Redmarshall (fl. 1400) In 1397 he represented Newcastle in parliament. In 1401 he became the first sheriff of Newcastle.

Nicholas Hulme (  ?  -1458) A cleric who was Rector of Redmarshall for 35 years. He became Treasurer of Durham and Master of Greatham Hospital.

Rev. George Faber (1773-1853) A clergyman from the West Riding who became Rector of Redmarshall in 1809. He was Master of Sherburn Hospital from 1832 to 1853 and wrote more than 40 books.

Thomas Austin (1797-1856) A clergyman who became rector of Redmarshall in 1845. He had the old rectory rebuilt by the eminent Lancaster architect Edmund Sharpe. The plaque on the rectory bears his name and that of Edward Maltby, Bishop of Durham.

Henry Liddell (1811-1898) A scholar and educator who lived in Redmarshall during his childhood. He became famous as the Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and as the father of Alice Liddell, the inspiration for Alice in Wonderland.

The Hearth Tax of 1666

Redmarshall was a small village in 1666. Only 13 houses were listed in the assessments of that year and 6 of those were rated as below the tax threshold. 6 houses had 1 or 2 hearths and there was only one substantial property. This was the house of Jonathan Jackson who was listed as a gentleman. This house had 4 hearths.

See “Hearth Tax List for South Durham Lady Day 1666” (ed.) J.C.Howe for Cleveland Family History Society.

Census

1801     60

1851     76

1901     55

1951     105

2011     354

Directories

Whellan’s Directory of 1856 listed 5 farmers in Redmarshall. There was a school and a teacher’s house but no shops. Robert Thompson had the Ship and was also described as a victualler and a mason. In Kelly’s Directory of 1914 Robert Simpson had the Ship and there were 6 farmers, although this might not be a complete list.

A Selection of Dates

10th century     John Wessington, (prior of Durham 1416-1446) maintained that St. Cuthbert’s body lay       at Redmarshall during the tenth century.

1214     The Curia Regis rolls state that King John granted St. Cuthbert’s church to the Knights Hospitallers, but there is no other evidence that this took place.

1318     Taxation on the benefice of Redmarshall was halved on account of damage done by the Scots.

1320     The Rector of Redmarshall was deprived of his living for attempting to profit from fraud.

1400     At the royal muster of troops on Gilesgate Moor, Redmarshall sent one lancer and one archer.

1417     It is thought that the male effigy in the church is of Thomas Langton of Wynyard, who died in this year.

1458     Nicholas Hulme bequeathed a manuscript book to Redmarshall church. The book was called “Pupilla Oculi” and was intended to be used by parish priests and curates.

1462     The Rector of Redmarshall, Adam Morland, was permitted to enclose and embattle his rectory house.

1564     The parish register commenced.

1569     Five men from Redmarshall joined the Rising of the North. One of them was hanged.

1640     Christopher Morpeth’s will set up  a long-lasting charity for the poor of Redmarshall.

1662     The rector of Redmarshall was deprived of his living for refusing to conform to the Act of Uniformity.

1697-1700  Pews were installed and a new pulpit with a tester.

1805     Rev. John Brewster, author of a history of Stockton, became rector of Redmarshall.

1806     The parish church was given a new roof.

1808     Rev. Brewster preached on “the religious improvement of prisons” in Durham Cathedral.

1818     A canal from Evenwood to Portrack through Redmarshall parish was proposed.

1836     Carlton Station, about one mile north west of Redmarshall, was opened.

1845     The rectory was built.

1846     James Pallister of Little Burdon built Pallister’s Schools at Redmarshall.

1891     The National School was built on the site of the old school.

1915     The railway from Shildon to Newport which ran through Redmarshall was electrified.

1923     Carlton railway station was renamed Redmarshall station.

1941     Redmarshall was bombed during an enemy air raid on the night of 6th-7th May.

1952     The Ship Inn, of late 17th or early 18th century date, became a grade II listed building.

               Redmarshall station was closed, although the railway line continued to be used.

1965     Teesside Model Flying Club was formed, with a site at Redmarshall.

1966     Redmarshall school was closed and the pupils transferred to Bishopton school.

1971     The houses of the “Lakes” estate were built.

1977     The parishes of Redmarshall, Bishopton and Great Stainton were combined.

1978     A new organ was installed in the parish church.

1982     Th parishes of Redmarshall, Bishopton and Great Stainton were combined with the parishes of Stillington and Grindon.

2001     The model flying club held its first annual airshow at Redmarshall.

2003     The Big Butterwick Bike Ride, a fund-raising event for the Butterwick Hospice, passed through Redmarshall. This was the first of what became an annual event.

2016     More than 70 cars were burnt out in a fire at a garage compound just north of Redmarshall.

This list of dates was compiled using “The Victoria County History of the County of Durham” vol. 3 (ed.) William Page (1928) and other secondary sources.

Suggested Further Reading

“Clergymen of Cleveland: St. Cuthbert, Redmarshall” J. and A.Marchant (1992)

“The Lands and People of the Parish of Redmarshall” J. and A.Marchant (1993)

“Know Your Parish: Redmarshall” J.C.Howe, CFHS Journal vol.5 no.5 (1994)

“The Two Former Rectories of Redmarshall” D.Bell and S.Bell, Durham Archaeological Journal vol.10 (1994)